Ingantaccen Tsarin Takin Taki

Kula da yanayi samar da takin gargajiya, a aikace, shine haɗuwa da kaddarorin jiki da ƙirar halitta yayin aiwatar da takin gargajiya. A gefe guda, yanayin sarrafawa yana ma'amala da haɗin kai. A gefe guda kuma, an gauraye iska daban-daban a hade, saboda bambancin yanayi da saurin kaskanci daban-daban.

Sarrafa danshi
Danshi abu ne mai mahimmanci don takin gargajiya. A yayin aiwatar da takin zamani, dangin danshi na asalin kayan aikin takin shine kashi 40% zuwa 70%, wanda ke tabbatar da ci gaban takin da sannu. Mafi dacewar abun cikin danshi shine 60-70%. Higharamar abu mai ƙarancin abu ko ƙarancin abu na iya shafar aikin aerobe don haka ya kamata a gudanar da tsarin danshi kafin ferment. Lokacin da danshi na kayan ƙasa da ƙasa da kashi 60%, zafin jiki na hauhawa sannu a hankali kuma digirin bazuwar yana ƙasa. Lokacin da abun cikin danshi ya wuce kashi 70%, to an sami cikas din samun iska sannan za a samar da bushewar anaerobic, wanda ba shi da amfani ga dukkan ci gaban ferment.

Nazarin ya nuna cewa yadda yakamata ya kara danshi na danyen kayan zai iya hanzarta takin zamani da kwanciyar hankali. Ya kamata danshi ya ci gaba da kasancewa a kashi 50-60% a farkon matakin yin takin sannan kuma ya kamata a kiyaye shi a kashi 40% zuwa 50%. Yakamata a sarrafa danshi ƙasa da kashi 30% bayan takin. Idan danshi yayi yawa, ya kamata ya bushe a zafin 80 of.

Kula da yanayin zafi.

Sakamakon aikin ƙananan ƙwayoyin cuta, wanda ke ƙayyade haɗin kayan aiki. Lokacin da zafin jiki na farko na takin ya kasance 30 ~ 50 ℃, ƙananan ƙwayoyin thermophilic na iya kaskantar da adadi mai yawa na kwayoyin halitta kuma ya ruɓe cellulose cikin sauri a cikin ɗan gajeren lokaci, saboda haka inganta haɓakar zafin jikin tari. Zafin jiki mafi kyau shine 55 ~ 60 ℃. Babban zazzabi shine yanayin da ake buƙata don kashe ƙwayoyin cuta, ƙwai kwari, tsaba da sauran abubuwa masu guba da cutarwa. A 55 ℃, 65 ℃ da 70 ℃ yanayin zafi na foran awanni na iya kashe abubuwa masu cutarwa. Yawanci yakan ɗauki makonni biyu zuwa uku a yanayin zafi na al'ada.

Mun ambata cewa danshi abu ne wanda yake shafar zafin jiki na takin zamani. Yawan danshi zai rage yawan zafin jiki na takin, kuma daidaita danshi yana da amfani ga haɓakar zafin jiki a mataki na gaba na ferment. Hakanan za'a iya saukar da zafin jiki ta hanyar ƙara ƙarin danshi.

Kunna tarin wata hanya ce ta sarrafa zafin jiki. Ta jujjuya tari, zazzabin kayan tari yana iya zama mai sarrafawa yadda ya kamata, da ƙarancin ruwa da iska mai saurin iska. DaInjin takin zamani hanya ce mai tasiri don fahimtar gajeren lokaci. Ya na da halaye na sauki aiki, araha farashin da kyau kwarai yi. Cinji mai juya ompost iya sarrafa iko da zafin jiki da lokacin ferment.

Tsarin C / N rabo.

Matsayi na C / N mai kyau na iya haɓaka ƙoshin lafiya. Idan adadin C / N yayi yawa, saboda karancin sinadarin nitrogen da iyakancewar yanayin girma, tozartar da kwayar halitta takeyi tana raguwa, hakan yasa takin ya kara tsayi. Idan adadin C / N yayi ƙasa sosai, ana iya amfani da carbon gaba ɗaya, kuma za a iya rasa haɓakar nitrogen a matsayin ammoniya. Ba wai kawai ya shafi muhalli ba, har ma yana rage tasirin takin nitrogen. Orananan ƙwayoyin cuta suna haifar da protoplasm na ƙwayoyin cuta yayin ƙwaƙƙwarar ƙwayarsu. Protoplasm ya ƙunshi 50% carbon, 5% nitrogen da 0. 25% phosphoric acid. Masu binciken sun ba da shawarar dacewa C / N shine 20-30%.

Za'a iya daidaita yanayin C / N na takin gargajiya ta hanyar ƙara manyan kayan C ko manyan N. Wasu kayan, kamar su bambaro, ciyawa, rassa da ganye, suna dauke da zare, lignin da pectin. Saboda yawan carbon / nitrogen mai yawa, ana iya amfani dashi azaman babban haɓakar carbon. Takin dabbobi da kaji suna da yawa a cikin nitrogen kuma ana iya amfani dasu azaman ƙarin haɓakar nitrogen. Misali, yawan amfani da sinadarin ammonia nitrogen a cikin taki alade zuwa kananan kwayoyin shine 80%, wanda zai iya inganta ci gaba da kuma hayayyafar kananan halittu da hanzarta takin.

Da sabon inji taki granulation inji ya dace da wannan matakin. Za'a iya ƙara abubuwa da yawa zuwa buƙatu daban-daban lokacin da kayan ƙarancin shiga cikin inji.

Air-zuba da kuma iskar oxygen.

Ga ferment na taki, yana da mahimmanci a sami isasshen iska da iskar oxygen. Babban aikinta shine samarda isashshen iskar oxygen don ci gaban ƙwayoyin cuta. Matsakaicin zazzabi da lokacin takin zamani ana iya sarrafa shi ta hanyar daidaita yanayin zafin jiki na tari ta kwararar iska. Flowara yawan iska yana iya cire danshi yayin kiyaye yanayin yanayin zafin jiki mafi kyau. Samun iska mai kyau da isashshen oxygen zasu iya rage asarar nitrogen da kuma samarda kamshi daga takin zamani.

Danshi na takin gargajiya yana da tasiri kan yaduwar iska, aikin microbial da kuma amfani da iskar oxygen. Yana da maɓallin mahimmanci natakin zamani. Muna buƙatar sarrafa danshi da samun iska bisa ga halaye na kayan don cimma daidaito na danshi da oxygen. A lokaci guda, dukansu biyu na iya haɓaka haɓaka da haifuwa na ƙananan ƙwayoyin cuta da inganta yanayin ƙwanƙwasa.

Nazarin ya nuna cewa ya nuna cewa yawan oxygen yana ƙaruwa sosai a ƙasa da 60 ℃, yana girma a hankali sama da 60 ℃, kuma yana kusa da sifili sama da 70 ℃. Ya kamata a daidaita iska da oxygen daidai da yanayin zafi daban-daban. 

PH kula.

Theimar pH tana shafar dukkan aikin ƙoshin abinci. A matakin farko na takin gargajiya, pH zai shafi aikin ƙwayoyin cuta. Misali, pH = 6.0 ita ce mahimmin mahimmanci game da taki alade da farantan itace. Yana hana carbon dioxide da samar da zafi a pH <6.0. A pH> 6.0, carbon dioxide da zafi suna ƙaruwa cikin sauri. A cikin babban yanayin zafin jiki, haɗuwar babban pH da zazzabi mai ƙarfi yana haifar da ammonia volatilization. Microbes sun bazu zuwa cikin ƙwayoyin halitta ta takin zamani, wanda ke saukar da pH kusan 5.0. Acidsananan acid masu ƙaura suna ƙaura yayin da yawan zafin jiki ya hauhawa. A lokaci guda, zaizawar ammoniya ta hanyar kwayoyin halitta yana kara darajar pH. A ƙarshe, yana daidaitawa a babban matakin. Za a iya samun matsakaicin takin zamani mafi girma a yanayin zafi na takin zamani tare da ƙimar pH tun daga 7.5 zuwa 8.5. Babban pH na iya haifar da rikicewar ammoniya da yawa, don haka ana iya rage pH ta ƙara alum da acid phosphoric.

A takaice, ba sauki a sarrafa ingantacce da cikakke ferment na kwayoyin kayan. Don kayan aiki guda ɗaya, wannan yana da sauƙi. Koyaya, abubuwa daban-daban suna hulɗa da hana juna. Don fahimtar yanayin inganta yanayin takin, ya zama dole ayi aiki tare da kowane tsari. Lokacin da yanayin sarrafawa suka dace, ƙwarjin ruwan zai iya ci gaba ba tare da matsala ba, don haka ya kafa tushe don samar datakin gargajiya mai inganci.


Post lokaci: Jun-18-2021