Yadda ake sarrafa ingancin takin

Kula da yanayi samar da takin gargajiya, a aikace, ma'amala ce ta kayan aiki na zahiri da na halitta a yayin aikin takin. A gefe guda, yanayin sarrafawa yana ma'amala da haɗin kai. A gefe guda kuma, an gauraye iska daban-daban a hade, saboda bambancin yanayi da saurin kaskanci daban-daban.

● Sarrafa danshi
Danshi abu ne mai mahimmanci don takin gargajiya. A yayin aikin takin zamani, dangin danshi na asalin kayan hada takin shine kashi 40% zuwa 70%, dan tabbatar da ci gaban takin da sannu. Mafi dacewar abun cikin danshi shine 60-70%. Highara tsayi ko ƙarancin abu mai laushi zai iya tasiri ga aikin keɓaɓɓen ƙwayoyin cuta ta yadda za a aiwatar da ƙayyadaddun ruwa kafin a cika shi. Lokacin da abun cikin danshi yake kasa da kashi 60%, dumama yayi jinkiri, zafin jiki yayi kasa kuma digirin bazu yake kasa. Danshi ya fi kashi 70%, yana da tasiri akan samun iska, wanda yake zama cikin ferment na anaerobic, jinkirin dumama da kuma lalacewa mara kyau.
Nazarin ya nuna cewa ƙara ruwa a cikin tarkacen takin na iya haɓaka saurin takin zamani da kwanciyar hankali a cikin magana mafi aiki. Yawan ruwa ya kamata ya kasance 50-60%. Ya kamata a ƙara danshi daga baya a kiyaye shi zuwa 40% zuwa 50%, yayin da bai kamata ya zubo ba. Ya kamata a sarrafa danshi ƙasa da 30% a cikin samfuran. Idan danshi yayi yawa, ya kamata ya bushe a zafin 80 of.

● Kula da yanayin zafi
Yawan zafin jiki shine sakamakon aikin kwayar halitta. Yana ƙayyade hulɗar kayan aiki. A zafin jiki na 30 ~ 50 ℃ a matakin farko na tara takin, aikin mesophile na iya haifar da zafi, yana haifar da yawan zafin jiki na takin. Matsakaicin yanayi ya kasance 55 ~ 60 ℃. Kwayoyin halittar Thermophilic na iya kaskantar da adadi mai yawa na kayan adadi kuma cikin sauri ya fasa cellulose cikin kankanin lokaci. Babban zazzabi shine yanayin da ake buƙata don kashe gubar mai guba, gami da ƙwayoyin cuta, ƙwai masu laushi da ƙwaya da sauransu. ko 70 ℃ na awowi da yawa.

Abun cikin danshi shine abinda yake shafar zafin jikin takin. Yawan danshi na iya rage yawan zafin jiki na takin zamani. Daidaita danshi yana iya zama kwaskwarima zuwa matakin takin zamani. Za'a iya rage yawan zafin jiki ta hanyar haɓaka abun cikin danshi, gujewa yawan zafin jiki yayin aiwatar da takin.
Takin takin gargajiya wani abu ne don sarrafa zafin jiki. Takin takin na iya sarrafa yanayin zafin jiki da haɓaka ƙwarin ruwa, yana tilasta iska ta cikin tulin. Hanya ce mai tasiri don rage yawan zazzabin mai amfani ta hanyar amfani da shiInjin takin zamani. An halin sauki aiki, low price da kuma babban yi. Don daidaita yawan takin yana sarrafa yanayin zafin jiki da lokacin mafi yawan zafin jiki.

● Tsarin C / N rabo
Lokacin da rabo C / N ya dace, ana iya samar da takin ba laushi. Idan adadin C / N yayi yawa, saboda karancin sinadarin nitrogen da takaitaccen yanayin ci gaba, saurin lalacewa na barnatar da kwayoyin yana zama a hankali, wanda ke haifar da tsawan lokacin takin zamani. Idan adadin C / N yayi ƙasa ƙwarai, ana iya amfani da carbon gaba ɗaya, yawan nitrogen ya yi asara a cikin sifofin ammoniya. Ba wai kawai yana shafar muhalli ba amma yana rage ingancin takin nitrogen. Microbes suna shirya protoplasm na ƙwayoyin cuta yayin takin gargajiya. Akan busassun nauyi, protoplasm ya ƙunshi 50% carbon, 5% nitrogen da 0. 25% phosphate. Saboda haka, masu bincike sun ba da shawarar cewa C / N mai dacewa da takin mai magani ne 20-30%.
Za'a iya daidaita yanayin C / N na takin gargajiya ta hanyar ƙara kayan da ke ƙunshe da ƙarancin carbon ko babban nitrogen. Wasu kayan, kamar su ciyawa, ciyawa, itacen dahuwa da ganye, suna ɗauke da zare, lignin da pectin. Saboda babban C / N, ana iya amfani dashi azaman kayan haɓaka mai ƙarancin carbon. Saboda yawan sinadarin nitrogen, za a iya amfani da taki na dabbobi azaman kayan haɓakar nitrogen. Misali, takin alade yana dauke da sinadarin ammonium nitrogen wanda ke samuwa na kashi 80 cikin 100 na kwayar microbes, ta yadda za a inganta ci gaban kwayoyin halitta da haihuwa da kuma hanzarta balagar takin.Sabon nau'in granizer takin zamani ya dace da wannan lokacin. Lokacin da kayan asalin suka shiga cikin injin, za'a iya ƙara abubuwa bisa la'akari da buƙatu daban-daban.

● Samun iska da iskar oxygen
Abu ne mai mahimmanci ga takin zamani don samun isasshen iska da oxygen. Babban aikinta shine samar da isashshen oxygen don haɓakar ƙwayoyin cuta. Don daidaita yanayin zafin jiki ta hanyar sarrafa iska don sarrafa matsakaicin zazzabin takin zamani da lokacin abin da ya faru. Duk da yake kiyaye mafi kyawun yanayin zafin jiki, don haɓaka samun iska na iya cire danshi. Samun iska mai kyau da iskar oxygen zasu iya rage asarar nitrogen, samar da malodor da danshi, wanda yake da sauƙin adana samfuran sarrafa abubuwa.

Danshi na takin yana da tasiri akan tasirin porosity na motsa jiki da aikin microbial, wanda zai shafi amfani da iskar oxygen. Abu ne mai mahimmanci a cikin takin zamani. Yana buƙatar sarrafa danshi da samun iska bisa tushen kaddarorin kayan aiki, don samun daidaito na ruwa da iskar oxygen. Duk da yake a cikin la'akari da duka biyun, zai iya haɓaka haɓakar ƙwayoyin cuta da haifuwa da haɓaka yanayin sarrafawa.
Binciken ya nuna cewa yawan oxygen yana ƙaruwa sosai a ƙasa da 60 ℃, ƙarancin amfani sama da 60 ℃ kuma yana kusa da sifili sama da 70 ℃. Adadin iska da oxygen ya kamata a sarrafa su daidai da yanayin zafin jiki daban-daban.

Controls pH sarrafawa
Valueimar pH tana tasiri kan dukkan aikin takin. A matakin farko na takin gargajiya, pH yana shafar aikin ƙwayoyin cuta. Misali, pH = 6.0 shine iyakar iyaka don alade mai girma da ƙura-ƙura. Yana hana carbon dioxide da samar da zafi a pH <6.0. Yana ƙaruwa cikin sauri a cikin iskar carbon dioxide da samar da zafi a PH> 6. 0. Yayin shiga cikin babban yanayin zafin jiki, aikin haɗin babban pH da zazzabi mai ƙarfi yana haifar da lalata ammoniya. Microbes sun kaskanta cikin asid tare da takin zamani, wanda ya haifar da raguwar pH, zuwa 5 ko makamancin haka. Sannan kuma mayikan mai saurin canzawa yana canzawa saboda tashin zafin jiki. A halin yanzu, ammoniya, wanda aka raina shi da ƙarancin abubuwa, yana sa pH ya tashi. A ƙarshe, yana daidaitawa a babban matakin. A cikin babban zafin jiki na takin zamani, darajar pH a 7.5 ~ 8.5 na iya cimma adadin takin zamani. Mafi yawan pH na iya haifar da yawan ɓarkewar ammoniya, saboda haka yana iya rage pH ta ƙari na alum da phosphoric acid.

 

A takaice dai, sarrafa ingancin takin ba sauki. Yana da ɗan sauki ga

Yanayi guda. Koyaya, ana hulɗa da kayan don cimma nasarar haɓaka yanayin takin, kowane tsari yakamata a bashi haɗin kai. Lokacin da yanayin kulawa ya dace, ana iya sarrafa takin ba tare da matsala ba. Saboda haka, ta aza tushe mai ƙarfi don samar da takin zamani mai inganci.


Post lokaci: Jun-18-2021